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Evolution of Quick Charging

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It has been some time now since the first iPhone, Android, and Windows Smartphones came into the market. 

The batteries of these devices had a capacity of 1200-1500 mAh and voltage range of 1 A and 5 V. These batteries could be completely charged in 1.5-2 hours

These batteries were capable of running for the entire day or could even stretch for an extra day. However, these devices took long hours to get charged. But users did not seem to complain.

Although with the passage of time, smartphones with high battery capacity started coming to the market, users had to spend long hours getting their devices charged.

Manufacturers have been working on increasing the capacity of the battery further but were not that successful in their endeavor. It has led to the introduction of standards of quick charging.

A quick charger for smartphones became a necessity due to the inability of manufacturers to increase the battery capacity. Technology regarding fast charging for android started emerging after that. A Micro USB charger and Type c fast charger started coming into existence.

USB Battery Charging Revision 1.2

This standard was adopted in 2011. If this device was integrated into a USB port, it could be used for free charging. A standard USB 3.0 gave out not more than 900 mA at 5 V, the current surges to 1.5 A, and charging timing considerably reduced.

This standard was not commonly used. Only high end machines had such powerful USB ports.

Qualcomm Quick Charge 1.0-2.0

Qualcomm Quick Charge was created in 2019. It is probably the most popular quick charging method. QC 1.0 could only support Snapdragon 600 chipsets. The voltage was USB 5 Volts, while the current soar up to 2 A.

QC 2.0 became the first famous standard for fast charging. It was compatible with other versions of Snapdragon. The differentiator for QC 2 is that the current was restricted to 2 A, whereas the voltage could surge up to 12 V.

Problem with QC 2.0 was the batteries started getting overheated due to the power of 18 W. This impacted the longevity of the cells. 

After the launch of Snapdragon 810, things started to grow worse. We have seen that Android increases its background activity when it is connected to a charger, which leads to overheating of the CPU. The users were facing the problem of quick draining of batteries and breakage of motherboards due to overheating.

Qualcomm Quick Charge 3.0-4.0

The Snapdragon 820/821 was introduced in 2016. With it, QC 3.0 technology was introduced in the market in 2016 to address the issue of overheating. Qualcomm created a flexible voltage setting for it. 

The problem of overheating was solved with the coming of Snapdragon (supporting 821, 820, 620, 618, 617, 430). They were relatively colder than the previous versions.

But the main problem with QC 3.0 was the compatibility with USB-C. It was dangerous to use third-party cables for quick charging through this port. 

QC 4.0 was introduced at the end of 2016. It resolved many issues. One is that it was compatible with any of the USB-C cables. Fully compatible with the Power delivery.  

Apple’s Fast Charging

Apple introduced the technology of fast charging in 2017 according to the standard of Power Delivery (PD). Introducing fast charging for iPhone was imperative as Apple’s competitors offered 50-60 percent charing at half an hour. 

To use this technology, two things were required one is a Lightning Cable (USB-C) and a power adapter with PD support. It will result in 50 percent charging in half an hour. This result was not up to the expectation. 

Huawei Fast Charging Protocol (FCP), Samsung Advanced Fast Charging and Motorola Turbo Power

The reason behind clubbing all these technologies together is they are clones of QC 2.0. Huawei uses Kirin processors, which necessitates creating a new technology like FCP.

For the fast charging of Samsung and Motorola devices are concerned, both of them use Qualcomm processors. So, there fast charging technology is just the rebranding.

Mediatek Pump Express+

Mediatek Pump Express+ like Samsung and Motorola are a clone of QC. Unlike other technologies, it has three versions. The first two versions are a clone of the QC standard.

Conclusion

Therefore, as we can see, every large mobile manufacturer has introduced its own fast charging technology. Moreover, many existing chargers are not compatible with competent solutions. Apple and Qualcomm are using only a single standard that is Power Delivery, and people liked it very much. We hope other companies also follow this suit and start standardizing their technologies in the years to come.

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